Atmospheric analysis have been carried out with particular reference to the large area potentially affected by the effects of the works on the land and the envisaged increase in airport traffic.
This area mainly falls within the Municipality of Venice, the air quality of which is monitored by some units run by the Veneto region's Environmental Protection Agency (ARPAV), and by one unit managed by SAVE S.p.A., located near the runway.
The air quality within airport's area has characteristics comparable with those recorded by the regional environmental protection agency's network; in particular, there are no critical issues for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) compounds, while for dust (PM10) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), similar to what happens within the municipal territory, there are situations of non-compliance with regulatory limits, although there is no evidence of correlation between airborne concentrations of dusts and nitrogen oxides and air-traffic fluctuations.
The impact assessment in the 2021 scenario was carried out with reference to the expected increase in air traffic, taking into account the technological improvements envisaged for vehicle traffic, while leaving unchanged (conservative hypothesis) the composition of the air fleet. Moreover, reductions in aircraft emissions have not been envisaged.
For the development scenario in 2021, receptor concentrations were estimated. As a result, for 2021 no increase is forecast in concentrations of dusts, both PM10 and PM2.5, and benzene; indeed, the expected technological improvements for road vehicles prevail over the estimated increase in aircraft emissions (for which technological improvements have not been factored into the equation). With reference to benzo(a)pyrene, receptor concentrations in 2021 are comparable to those forecast for 2013: in this case, although the aerospace factor gives higher emissions, dilution and dispersion effects indicate that the relative values of road and air traffic sources in terms of receptor concentrations are substantially comparable. The scenario is different for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which shows slight increases in 2021 when compared with 2013; whereas for this compound the today's benchmark value is already not far from the regulatory threshold, even relatively-modest increases (in this case up to +13%) cannot be considered unimportant. Lastly, as to formaldehyde, which is closely related to aerospace emissions, the receptors show an increase in concentration by 2021, which however remains below the Environmental Quality Standards suggested by the World Health Organization.
Despite the fact that receptors do not show critical issues with respect to the regulatory limits in force, even considering the baseline values provided by the Veneto region's Environmental Protection Agency (urban context) unit in Bissuolapark (Mestre), for the 2021 scenario we evaluated a low negative impact in relation to the estimated increase in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and to the overall contribution with reference to the area occupied by the airport (21%).
Annual average concentration of NO2 in 2021 resulting from air and car-driven emissions (year 2021).
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