The project has not overlooked the development of the energy theme: the Energy Master Plan, an in-depth analysis linked to the Master Plan 2021 and regarding the strategic planning of energy demands, has indeed addressed the question of energy efficiency, and developed the possibilities of using those renewable sources which are most suitable and compatible with the characteristics of the local environment.
Regarding airport development, it is inevitable that also energy consumption will significantly increase, which implies considerations on environmental impact and the mitigation measures to be taken.
The typical works of an airport infrastructure entail significant energy demands, which take in almost all hours of the day, 365 days a year.
Energy consumption thus brings sizeable economic and environmental costs, which are both direct (local emissions related to fossil-fuel consumption) and indirect (remote emissions related to electricity use).
In this sense, the airport management has long adopted a path aimed at greater energy efficiency and a consequent reduction in environmental impact, adhering, among other initiatives, to a collective carbon-reduction scheme for airports. Thus, the Airport Carbon Accreditation was voluntarily established in June 2009, and Venice Tessera is a member.
At the end of the development programme, the charts indicate the remarkable growth of the airport and its related facilities that has more than quadrupled: when considering "conditioned" areas (i.e. volumes affected by the processes of heating, conditioning, ventilation, lighting, technological process), from the original V1 = 630,000 m3 there is an increase to V2 = 2,600,000 m3.
In the light of this increase, there is a significant increase in energy demand which, nevertheless, is less than proportional:
+ 120% thermal energy;
+ 95% of cooling;
+ 55% electricity.
To seek a single figure to express the specific energy variation between current and final conditions, it is suggested - as systematically implemented by Community legislation - that the primary energy be calculated, related to the volumes concerned (while considering the distortion caused by car parks, which are not calculated among the volumes although they do consume electricity for lighting).
By using the same conversion parameters to level out the different forms of energy, namely:
Ef = Ee x 4.0 Ee = Ep x 0.46
the increase from the initial value to the final primary energy value is, respectively:
Ep1 = 87 GWh/a Ep2 = 155 GWh/a which, compared to the respective volumes, give specific primary energies, respectively, of:
e1 = 135 kWh/m3 a e2 = 60 kWh/m3 a
The result appears both reassuring and ambitious but it must be correctly put into the long-term perspective over which it has been evaluated: it is expected that results meet the expectations and requirements of an "aggressive" coherent fortnightly programme which has been created to meet the current energy-environment emergency, to address which a remarkable collective effort is under way to rationalize the use of energy resources in all areas (energy-saving, renewable and quasi-renewable sources), and at all levels (institutions, the scientific community, companies, end users).
It should also be borne in mind that some components of energy requirements, such as technological requirements, involved developments that are difficult to foresee and beyond the scope of an analysis such as that introduced here.
There are three aspects that significantly affect the definition of the energy system that powers the Master Plan’s system of utilities:
The choice of creating a polygeneration plant is consistent with this setting, making it increasingly compulsory and inevitable.
It is a considerable investment and one of great importance to the energy sector, which envisages the generation of heat and cold as an output from generating electricity, thus bringing considerable energy savings, a substantial reduction in global emissions, and a drastic reduction in operation costs.
The choice of a centralized plant architecture, as a formula that is almost obliged by the need to concentrate the energy transformation processes, allows for powerful optimization, and easy surveillance and maintenance.
The opportunity to integrate some units - available in the current technological set-up - into the energy generation/transformation plant and equipment indicates that it is best not to fully centralize but to remain open to remote integrations, which can provide backup supply to cover for exceptional demands. This initiative basically aims at recovering a part of the existing technology while removing redundant and overburdening units from the main plant.
This principle, 'borrowed' from the smart-grids concept, is also suitable for receiving contributions from future decentralized systems that can use renewable sources locally in the following forms:
- thin-film PVs;
- geothermal fields integrated into structural piles
The application of solar photovoltaic integrated into the urban architectural context certainly represents almost the only possible renewable application for the production of electricity in the site
under analysis that does not have any particular downsides.
The use of roofs and/or the construction of projecting roof on external car parks does not involve occupation of otherwise-usable land, and does not imply any particular problem.
However, it is preferable to use the indeterminate type, as it can capture diffuse radiation (relevant in winter due to mist and haze) and, more importantly, it meets the need to prevent reflection and dazzling that may interfere with air traffic during the take-offs and landings.
The application of geothermal and hydrothermal energy for conditioning requirements is easily applicable to the context of this study. With reference to geothermal energy, the need to build structural piles to consolidate the foundations of any building due to the type of soil found at the site is well suited to the integration of closed-circuit geothermal probes. Thus these foundations can be transformed into "energy poles".
This opportunity has indeed been seen as very attractive in the light of the importance of the piling works that the structural design of the planned works has shown to be inevitable, in relation to the loads and hydrogeological and geotechnical characteristics of the underlying ground.
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